Become a fan on Facebook Follow us on Twitter USDA Blog Feed Watch USDA videos on YouTube Subscribe to receive e-mail updates View USDA Photos on Flickr Subscribe to RSS Feeds

Pollinator Protection: Conservation Helps Rare Butterfly

A monarch butterfly, a honey bee and an alfalfa leafcutter bee gather nectar from a showy milkweed. Photo by John Anderson of Hedgerow Farms.

A monarch butterfly, a honey bee and an alfalfa leafcutter bee gather nectar from a showy milkweed. Photo by John Anderson of Hedgerow Farms.

Every year, millions of tourists fly from central Mexico into the United States, first stopping in the deep American South and then continuing northward even into parts of southern Canada. How all of this is done without passports, customs agents or airplanes?

This is the annual journey made by monarch butterflies, one of the best-known and most beloved butterflies in North America.

The fact that the annual migration of these distinctive black and orange butterflies spans three countries and thousands of miles makes it an important and prolific pollinator over this large area.

At the end of the summer, the butterflies begin their return travels in Canada and the northern United States and can travel as much as 50 miles a day on their southward trek toward Mexico.

But this majestic butterfly is coming under increasing threat for many reasons, including the decline of resting areas the butterflies use, commonly called “way stations,” during their long pilgrimage across the United States.

The monarch butterfly population is in danger because they cannot survive without milkweed.  Monarch caterpillars eat the plants and butterflies lay their eggs in the milkweed.

A spider milkweed flowering in early July at the NRCS Plant Materials Center in Las Lunas, N.M. NRCS photo.

A spider milkweed flowering in early July at the NRCS Plant Materials Center in Las Lunas, N.M. NRCS photo.

Scientists estimate that 33 million monarchs remain, — more than a 90 percent drop across North America.

The loss of the milkweed plants contributes to the reduced number of monarchs recorded in California and Mexico. Additionally, more development, agricultural intensity and mowing of roadsides also has caused the plants to decline.

In order to help the monarch breeding habitat, conservationists recommend planting native milkweed species.

USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service is partnering with the Xerces Society, a nonprofit organization, to work on a three-year project with funds provided by a Conservation Innovation Grant to increase the availability of milkweed seed where it had not been typically available for habitat restoration. To date, this project has already produced over 35 million milkweed seeds.

NRCS agronomist David Dreesen from the Plant Materials Center works in Las Lunas, N.M. to grow several types of milkweed to see how they can harvest the seed efficiently.

“We are evaluating three species to determine how well they will produce seed in our climate and with our calcareous soils and alkaline irrigation water,” Dreesen said. “In addition, we need to determine whether it is economically feasible to grow milkweed seed.”

The successful partnership between NRCS and The Xerces Society has resulted in the planting of more than 120,000 acres of habitat for monarchs and other pollinators so far.

“Another big goal is to increase the availability of the native milkweed seeds and make them less expensive to purchase,” said Brianna Borders, plant ecologist at The Xerces Society.  “NRCS is leading the effort to provide conservation practices that can be used to improve pollinator habitat.”

This week, NRCS is celebrating National Pollinator Week by highlighting the many ways in which conservation benefits pollinators. In addition to working with groups like Xerxes, NRCS also works with American farmers and ranchers to voluntary make improvements to agricultural lands that have many benefits, including helping pollinators.

NRCS’ Plant Materials Center in Las Lunas, N.M. produces milkweed seeds. NRCS photo.

NRCS’ Plant Materials Center in Las Lunas, N.M. produces milkweed seeds. NRCS photo.

8 Responses to “Pollinator Protection: Conservation Helps Rare Butterfly”

  1. Arthur Berlowitz says:

    The survival of the Monarch butterfly in the US and Mexico should not depend on economics (some things are too important). The government needs to provide NRCS with sufficient funds to produce and distribute seed without remuneration, if that is necessary to ensure the Monarch’s survival.

  2. SaveOurMonarchs says:

    Visit Save Our Monarchs ( for free milkweed seeds. You can also donate to our cause if you wish!

  3. Gayle Wlheeler says:

    What kind of impact does milkweed have in areas as far as spreading into pasture grass and other crop areas?

  4. Ben [USDA Moderator] says:

    Hello Gayle – thanks for asking. Cattle and horses in the eastern US avoid eating milkweed (bitter), so it can keep growing, but it shouldn’t be of any concern unless it becomes super abundant. If that happens, it can mowed off or under extreme conditions, chemicals can help. We have 20 species of milkweed in the eastern US, and only the common milkweed moves into pastures. If it’s a concern, there are many other milkweed options. In the western US, there are a number of milkweeds in rangelands, but none are considered invasive.

  5. Tim Carpenter says:

    What are the best and showiest native milkweeds in the Delmarva region, especially for flower gardens?

  6. Ben [USDA Moderator] says:

    @Tim – The best type of milkweed depends on your goals, whether you’re going for appearance or for the best for monarch caterpillars and other pollinators. Butterfly milkweed (Asclepius tuberosa) is one of the showiest milkweeds available. It’s a beautiful plant in the garden and generally available at nurseries and as seed. While monarch caterpillars will feed on its leaves and a wide variety of butterflies and other pollinators will visit its flowers, it’s not the best plant for feeding monarch butterfly caterpillars. The two best milkweed species for feeding monarchs are common milkweed (A. syriaca) and, in wetter sites, swamp milkweed (A. incarnata). These two species grow prolifically once established and provide abundant food for monarch butterfly caterpillars. They are beautiful in their own way, but not as showy as butterfly milkweed.

  7. Cheryl Matulevich says:

    Does current USDA policy require farmers, who are seeking operating loans and grants for mono-cropping, to set aside a small percentage of land as a pollinator habitat?

  8. Ben [USDA Moderator] says:

    @Cheryl Matulevich – thank you for asking. There is no linkage between USDA loans and NRCS conservation requirements. For NRCS financial assistance programs there is not a set-aside requirement. Financial assistance would be used to implement conservation practices on lands to support the pollinator habitat.

Leave a Reply